A fault-tolerant control method based on an improved adaptive Kalman filter and dynamic output feedback is proposed for discrete systems of actuator and sensor faults along with white noise. Under the noise interference, the faults of the system actuator and sensor are simultaneously estimated by the improved adaptive Kalman filter, whose convergence is analyzed by the Lyapunov function. According to the obtained information of faults, the fault-tolerant controller based on the dynamic output feedback and disk stability theorem is designed for the problem that the system state is not fully measurable to make the system response return to the normal state. Finally, the method is validated by the flight control system model. The results show that the method can not only simultaneously estimate faults of the actuator and sensor but can also correct the system response under faults, indicating that the control method has good fault tolerance.