In multi-mobile robot formation, the leader and follower cannot maintain formation because of the unmodeled dynamics inside the system and external disturbances such as wind direction and road surface smoothness. Thus, in this study, we propose a model prediction control (MPC) method based on an extended state observer (ESO). First, we establish a leader-follower formation model with disturbance term, and then design ESOs to estimate the disturbance of leader and follower. The formation model is linearized and discretized as the prediction model of the MPC formation controller, and the disturbance estimation is added to the prediction output equation. Finally, robust formation control for multi-mobile robots is achieved via optimal control law. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control method.